Limits to Growth

  • 1968, April, creation of the Club of Rome
    Called by Aurelio Peccei, 30 people meet in Rome.
    Leaders include: Alexander King, Hugo Thiemann, Saburo Okita, Eduard Pestel, Carroll Wilson.
  • 1970, July, Project on the Predicament of Mankind
    World Problematique: poverty, environment, loss of faith, urban sprawl, work insecurity, youth alienation, loss of values, inflation.
    Predicament: we see the WP but cannot understand or respond
    Phase One of the Project initiated by the Club of Rome at MIT
    Called Limits to Growth, led by Dennis Meadows
    Jay Forrester presents his global model, World2
  • 1972, March, Limits to Growth published
    First of three parts of the report of the project
    Written by Dennis and Donella Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William Behrens
    Results of simulation of world model using System Dynamics
    5 factors: population, food production, resource depletion, industrial ouput, pollution
    Conclusion: limits to growth reached by 2070 IF trends continue
  • 1973, Toward Global Equilibrium: Collected Papers published
    Second part of the report
    Edited by Dennis and Donella Meadows
    Series of papers by members of the System Dynamics Group at the Alfred P. Sloan School of Management at MIT.
  • 1974, Dynamics of Growth in a Finite World published
    Third part of the report
    Details of the revised model, World3
  • 1992, Beyond the Limits published
    Written by Donella and Dennis Meadows and Jorgen Randers
    Research by the authors and Bert de Vries, Thomas Fiddaman, Dianna Wright
    Conclusion: limits to growth already surpassed!

  • Revised 30 June 2002 by Ralph Abraham, <>